A trans-disciplinary study on the health risks of cryptosporidiosis from dairy systems in Dagoretti, Nairobi, Kenya: study background and farming system characteristics

This paper characterises the dairy farming system in Dagoretti, Nairobi. Characterisation was part of a broader ecohealth project to estimate the prevalence and risk of cryptosporidiosis and develop risk mitigation strategies. In the project a trans-disciplinary team addressed epidemiological, socioeconomic, environmental and policy aspects of cryptosporidiosis, an emerging zoonosis. This paper also provides background and describes sampling methods for the wider project.

Challenges and opportunities for clean milk production in the arid and semi-arid areas (ASALs) of Kenya

In Kenya the ASALs form 80% of the country’s land mass with nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. North Eastern Province is one of the key ASAL areas where camels are the main milk providers especially during the drought season when other livestock die or become unthrifty. About 1.7 million camels are kept in an area characterized by dusty environment, frequent drought or flooding and a high level of poverty. Although a lot of research has been done on highland milk production, little has been done in ASALs where there are unique challenges to clean milk production.

The occurrence of Fusarium species and mycotoxins in Kenyan wheat

presence of head blight-causing Fusarium species. Fungal contaminationwas determined by isolation on agar media, while mycotoxin analysis was by direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The wheat grain samples were highly contaminated with fungi, especially Epicoccum, Alternaria and Fusarium species. The mean Fusarium infection rate varied from 13% to 18%, with the major head blight-causing species being Fusarium poae, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium avenaceum. F.

Common conditions leading to cattle carcass and offal condemnations at 3 abattoirs in the Western Province of Zambia and their zoonotic implications to consumers

From a total of 32 717 cattle slaughtered, 183 whole carcass condemnations were attributable to 9 diseases and conditions, namely, tuberculosis (TB), cysticercosls, emaciation, generalised lymphadenitis, jaundice, abscesses, moribund, sarcosporidiosis and odour. Bovine IB was the most important cause of condemnations (154/183, 83.] %). Bovine cysticercosis and sarcosporidiosis accounted for 5/183 (2.7 %) and 8/183 (4.4 %), respectively, while each of the remaining conditions contributed less. Among the many conditions responsible for offal/organ condemnations were tascioliasts.

Community perceptions of important camel diseases in Lapur Division of Turkana District, Kenya

This paper presents the results of a study conducted in Lapur Division of Turkana District, Kenya, to estimate the incidence and mortality of camel trypanosomosis using participatory methods. Four livestock camps ('adakars') were conveniently selected for the study. Four informant groups comprising 6 8 key persons were used for the participatory exercises.

Descriptive analysis of the Dairy - Crop mixed farming system in // Wundanyi Division of Taita District, Kenya

This study was carried out to analyse the mixed crop-dairy farming system in the highlands of Wundanyi Division, Taita District, Kenya. The aims of the study were to identify the farmers' objectives; to determine resource availability and allocation; to identify the constraints, coping strategies and opportunities; and to get the trends of the farming system activities, performance and interactions. The study was undertaken over an eleven months period to capture the activities and trends in the two rainy seasons in the area.

Raiding pastoral livelihoods: motives and effects of violent conflict in north-western Kenya

Abstract Conflicts related to livestock raiding are not new phenomena in many pastoral societies in the Horn of Africa. Traditionally, various pastoral communities use raiding as a cultural practice for restocking of herds, especially after periods of drought or outbreaks of diseases. However, in recent years, livestock raiding has become more frequent, violent and destructive.This paper elucidates, first, the motives behind the current livestock raiding, and second, it analyses how conflict affects livelihoods of pastoral communities.

Prevalence of bovine and avian tuberculosis in camel herds and associated public health risk factors in Isiolo County, Kenya

A cross-sectional study was conducted among 308 lactating camels selected from 15 herds from three different camel milk clusters in Isiolo County, Kenya, to determine prevalence of bovine and avian tuberculosis using Single Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Skin test. Seventy-five (75) questionnaires were administered to pastoralists/herders, and focus group discussions were conducted among 3-5 pastoralists/herders selected from each camel herd to collect information on camel husbandry and health management practices and knowledge on tuberculosis in livestock and wildlife.

Capacity building for sustainable use of animal genetic resources in developing countries.

Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (AnGR) have great potential to contribute to increased food security and improved livelihood of poor people in developing countries. However, indigenous livestock which are well adapted to local conditions are often underutilized, and with few exceptions systematic breeding programmes are lacking. This is due to lack of a "critical mass" of people trained and informed in issues relating to AnGR, in addition to insufficient policy support and institutional frameworks.

Woodlands and livelihoods of African pastoralists: The Maasai of Kajiado, Kenya

A participatory vegetation inventory and research was conducted in Mashuuru Division, Kajiado District of Kenya, with an overall objective of capturing the indigenous knowledge of the Maasai pastoralist community on vegetation resources. Data collection was done through questionnaires, community workshops and meetings whereby the pastoralist, administration and extension personnel, and prominent leaders were invited. Representative pastoralists were engaged during the actual field data collection to assist in naming of vegetation types and uses of plant species encountered.

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