Patterns of Seed Dispersal and Regeneration of the Invader Prosopis juliflora in the Upper Floodplain of Tana River, Kenya

Invasive species in Africa have important impacts on food security and biodiversity conservation. African floodplains in arid areas are critical wildlife habitats in addition to crop production and dry season livestock grazing. The study aimed to understand the patterns of spread of the invader Prosopis juliflora in a typical African floodplain characterised by both multiple dispersers and habitats. Data was collected on faecal seed density, establishment and vegetation composition, and subjected to non-parametric tests and regression analysis.

Identifying human and livestock sources of fecal contamination in Kenya with host-specific Bacteroidales assays.

Microbial source tracking to distinguish between human, livestock and wildlife fecal pollution using molecular techniques is a rapidly evolving approach in many developed countries, but has not previously been applied on the African continent. DNA extracts from cow, donkey, and human fecal specimens and raw domestic sewage samples collected in Kenya were tested against five existing quantitative PCR assays designed to detect universal (2), human-specific (2), and cow-specific (1) fecal Bacteroidales genetic markers.

An analysis of factors influencing farmer participation in cattle marketing in Nyagatare district, Rwanda

Cattle keeping, significantly contributes to income generation and livelihood improvement of the rural poor in Rwanda. People keep cattle for home use and to sell at the market. Many farmers do not participate in the cattle market, which is a step in commercialization. Therefore, there is a need to analyze factors that determine farmers' participation in the cattle market. The purpose of this study was to assess the contribution of various factors on the probability of farmers' participation in markets.

Comparison of production systems and selection criteria of Ankole cattle by breeders in Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda.

A survey in Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda was conducted in order to determine the different production systems under which Ankole cattle are currently kept. Additionally, selection criteria of livestock keepers were documented. In Burundi, Rwanda and parts of Uganda, livestock keepers are sedentary and herds are small, whereas in the other areas Ankole cattle are kept in large herds, some of them still under a (semi-)nomadic system. Milk is the main product in all areas, and is partly for home consumption and partly for sale.

Improving our knowledge of tropical indigenous animal genetic resources

To better manage, use and conserve animal genetic resources (AnGR), we must understand the nature and distribution of both the phenotypic and genetic diversity that they posses. This module makes a case for and highlights issues and methods that underpin improved understanding of the diversity in AnGR as a basis for designing conservation and sustainable utilisation of the diversity (the subject of Module 3). The module emphasises the need to undertake phenotypic and genetic characterisation of indigenous breeds in order to improve our understanding.

The role of sand dams in water supply in arid areas (Machakos, district - Kenya)

In the arid and semi-arid areas of Kenya, inadequate water supply is a majbr constraint to development and various methods have been attempted to increase the water supply. In this project, a case study was carried out to evaluate the role of sand dams in water supply for domestic and livestock use. The study was carried out in part of an arid and semi-arid district (Machakos). A catchment of 67 was selected where 12 sand dams have been constructed.

Drought coping strategies among pastoralist communities in Garba Tulla District

Pastoral communities in arid and semi-arid regions of Kenya live with the expectation of drought. They continue to suffer, and arguably increasingly suffer, catastrophic losses of livestock (capital and savings) during drought. The impact of drought is particularly acute for poorer members of communities with smaller livestock holdings and less developed social support networks. The study attempted to report the coping strategies at the household level during drought among the pastoralists living in Garbatulla district in Isiolo County.

Livestock and Biodiversity: The Case of Cattle in Africa

Africa is home to diverse and genetically unique ruminant livestock and wildlife species. The continent, however, faces huge food security challenges, partly due to low productivity of the livestock. As a centre of cattle domestication, Africa hosts genetically unique cattle, being products of generations of co-evolution with diverse people, each selecting for different attributes under different production systems and environments. Over millennia, this diversity of purpose has led to rich and unparalleled blends of indigenous and exotic cattle.

Zoonosis emergence linked to agricultural intensification and environmental change

A systematic review was conducted by a multidisciplinary team to analyze qualitatively best available scientific evidence on the effect of agricultural intensification and environmental changes on the risk of zoonoses for which there are epidemiological interactions between wildlife and livestock. The study found several examples in which agricultural intensification and/or environmental change were associated with an increased risk of zoonotic disease emergence, driven by the impact of an expanding human population and changing human behavior on the environment.

Antimicrobial Agents Detected In Marketed Milk In Kenya

Drug residues in foods are a major public health concern in many countries, especially where most food sales bypass official quality assurance channels. In common with many tropical countries, sales of unpasteurized milk in Kenya account for over 85% of marketed milk. This milk is either sold directly from producers to consumers or via various cadres of informal market agents.

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