Organic or inorganic agriculture: the environmental costs and imperatives for African agriculture.

Unprecedented population growth accompanied by sustained high consumption of goods and services, the pursuit of economic growth and affluence at the expense of environment, high levels of urbanization, as well as the increasing demands for trade and globalization are some of the underlying factors impacting African agricultural production today. As a result, there is degradation of the land, atmosphere, and water resources arising from the increased use of the pesticides, nitrates, livestock waste and antibiotics, fossil fuels, nitrous oxide, ammonia and methane.

Smallholder farmers' feed material conseryation strategies in the tropical drylands of South-eastern Kenya

Availability of feed is the major constraint to livestock production in the drylands of southeastern Kenya. ln an effort to address this problem, this study was carried out to identify and rank feed material conservation strategies being used by the Kamba agropastoralists inhabiting this region. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to household heads of households selected using agro-ecological zones and systematic sampling using the road transect method. Ranking was done using the pairwise method white data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences.

Valuation of Genetically Determined Cattle Attributes Among Pastoralists of Kajiado District: Implications for Breed Conservation

Domestic animal diversity in developing countries is embedded in traditional farming and pastoral communities who manage their livestock according to their indigenous knowledge and in tune with local constraints. Especially in marginal environments, local livestock breed/rare crucial for sustaining rural livelihoods by producing a wide range of products while requiring relatively low levels of input with regard to fodder, management and health care.

Factors Influencing Quail Farming In Nyeri Central Constituency, Nyeri County, Kenya

Protein deficiency has remained a major challenge in the world. In Kenya, the recommended animal protein requirements by the Food and Agriculture Organization have not been met for most citizens. Quail farming is a cheap source of animal protein. Despite the introduction of the quail farming to cross the nutrition gap, the number of households keeping quails in Nyeri Central Constituency still remains low.

Pastoral neolithic settlement behaviour in the Central Rift Valley of Kenya

This study looked at Pastoral Neolithic settlement behaviour in the Central Rift Valley of Kenya. The research focused on four key prehistoric sites, that is, Hyrax Hill, Crescent Island, Gamble's Cave and Njoro River Cave. The main objective of the research was to establish the adaptive strategies that the Pastoral Neolithic people used to cope with their habitat. Specifically, the study intended to identify the factors that influenced the settlement of prehistoric communities in the study area.

Opportunities and Challenges of Setting-Up an Articulate HACCP System in Export Slaughterhouses in Countries Emerging from Conflict: An Appraisal of North-Western Somalia

An investigation in North-Western Somalia (Somaliland) to determine opportunities and challenges of setting up a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system to be adopted and complied with during operations in an export slaughterhouse was carried out for more than two years. A baseline and after intervention microbiological analysis was carried out on 500 wet and dry meat swab samples collected from carcasses from the slaughterhouse. The analysis was against total viable counts, E. coli counts and Salmonella species.

An evaluation of the range management extension services and the range development programs in north eastern Kenya

This study examines the effectiveness of range management extension services in north eastern Kenya and the impact of the range development programs on the pastoral community. The inhabitants of north eastern Kenya are nomadic people, and their livelihood depends mainly on their livestock. The area is arid and the rainfall is scarce and unreliable. Communal grazing is practised which often results in overgrazing of the area and deterioration of the range resources.

Makueni district profile: tree management, 1989-1998.

The efforts made by households in Makueni District, Kenya, to manage trees in crop and grazing lands are reviewed, using survey data from 4 villages in Wore and Kibwezi Divisions covering the period 1989-1998. The impact of external initiatives in tree seedling production and promotion over the same period is reviewed and the effect of government management of gazetted forests is examined.

Mixed-host Aggregations And Helminth Parasite Sharing In An East African Wildlife-livestock System.

Parasitic infections transmitted between livestock and wildlife pose a significant risk to wildlife conservation efforts and constrain livestock productivity in tropical regions of the world. Gastrointestinal helminths are among the most ubiquitous parasites, and many parasites within this taxon can readily infect a wide range of host species. Factors shaping bidirectional transmission of parasites in wildlife-livestock systems are understudied. In this study, we investigate the prevalence and diversity of helminth infections in an East African community of wild and domestic ungulates.

An assessment of the role of different cadres of animal health service providers in animal health service delivery in Kiambu district, Kenya.

This study was found necessary due to the changing nature of the veterinary services in Kenya whereby, hitherto, the delivery of veterinary services had been solely dependent on the government until some components were privatised. Privatisation was ad hoc as there were no policies in place to ensure quality of the services provided. The overall objective of the study was therefore to assess the role of private animal health service providers in the provision of veterinary services in Kiambu District, Kenya.

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